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S300PMU SA-10 Grumble

Type: Surface -to- Air
Year: 1985
Range (km): 3- 150
Ceiling (km): 0.025- 30
Weight (kg): 1480
Lenght (m): 7.0
Speed (m/sec): 2100 (7 M)
Type of seeker: -
Weight of warhead: 100 kg
Number of missiles: 4

S-300PMU1 - system of future century we shall recollect some episodes of operation " Desert Storm ", the information about which in due course has bypassed all world(global) press: February 16, 1991 the warhead iraq "Scud" has falled all in three hundred meters from a pier of the Saudi port Djubail, by which was located eight ships, switching on some ships with an ammunition. Has escaped also 5000 t of 155-mm artillery shells stored per that day on a pier. One from iraq ballistic missiles has striked house in Djubail. Has perished 28 and more than 100 military men are wounded. It has become the most significant battle(dashing) loss of a coalition on a comparison with any other operations of that period. However, the loss from rocket and air impacts. Basing on this experience, it is possible to predict the possible(probable) script of a beginning of a "typical" local military conflict of an extremity OO - beginning OOI centuries. First of all it is necessary to mark, that the aircraft on it of an initial stage will be used mainly for management of investigation, statement of radio interference and delivery of the high-precision weapon. For want of it the planes(airplanes) do not enter into zones of a defeat of zenith rocket means, being available at the opponent, for want of simultaneous radio electronic and their firing suppression. First essential air impacts in the beginning of military conflicts kakanonun? with use of unstrategic rocket means and just on them the rate in reaching of success in military operation by the contradictory parties is done(made). Thus, in a modern military conflict the means AD should conduct heavily fight with rocket and air means, ensuring for want of it own selfdefence and defense of major objects of state and military management, economy and armed forces. In these conditions the most scale part of a AD system of a defense of country - the antiaircraft system of a defense - should to a gradually acquire features and tactical AD defense. Now terms " unstrategic rocket means " and " unstrategic lsincaisazanka? a defense " have not received yet not precise and unequivocal(unambiguous) definition(determination), though and rather widely are used by the experts. Under the most widespread judgement, to unstrategic rocket means (NRS) it is necessary to refer ballistic missiles of small distance (BRMD) with distance of shooting less than 1000 kms, and also all types of winged rockets (KR) irrespective of distance of their flight. For want of it it is necessary to mark, that both classes of rockets for want of their use during local battle(dashing) operations will have only usual battle(dashing) equipment. The inclusion in structure NRS of the indicated rocket means is stipulated by their repeated application in actual military conflicts and stable tendency of distribution of these rocket means all over the world (today already tens countries possess a possibility of their production). The at the same time considered types NRS have essential distinctions(differences) on main naznczi-characteristics, methods of battle(dashing) application, that, certainly, imposes a print on a character of struggle with them by zenith rocket means and requires(demands) realization in them specific, sometimes of hard-to-compare requests. So, for BRMD first of all are characteristic: - high velocities of flight and extreme small response time in zones of a defeat of ADE means , that excludes in a number of cases a possibility of their repeated gunning; - complexity of advance detection of start items of mobile rocket installations(aims) (complexes) and practical impossibility of detection of start-up of a rocket; - low vulnerability because of a feature of their construction and mesh sizes of the vital aggregates; - low exactitude of shooting of majority of BRMD types (the circular interquartile range (KVO) from an aiming point makes up to 2 kms). In turn, features of winged rockets are: - Flight at extreme small heights (including with icciakcag of a contour of district), that creates complexities for their detection and realization of required(demanded) depth of zones of a missile complex defeat ; - Large radius of an operation (up to 2500 nautical miles), ensuring their application on all depth of country, including through territory of other countries or water areas of the seas; - The high exactitude of shooting (KVO reaches(achieves) units of meters), permitting reliably to strike objects have a high degree of a guard; - Possibility of simultaneous application from several directions (from ground, marine and air means). The efficiency of application of winged rockets is those, that, despite of them is significant a large vulnerability on a comparison with BRMD, the price for their miss(passing) (false launch) by AD means can appear much above. The researches, conducted per the last years, show, that effective struggle with BRMD and KR needs use of the various approaches in construction of means of detection and means of a defeat which is included in structure of coplex. So, to detection BRMD should be applied high-potential sector radars of the programm review. For detection low-fly winged rockets radars should answer already other requests, main of which the ability effectively is to work round on a hum noise of high-power reflections of the radiation from a terrestrial surface and ground subjects, including from hills, trees, structures etc. The effective defeat BRMD can be supplied only with high-speed zenith controlled rockets (ZUR) (antimissile), have an average velocity of flight not less than 1,3... 2 kms / s. For want of it antimissile should have high-power battle(dashing) equipment with hitting elements having a large kinetic energy, sufficient for destruction of a construction of BRMD or initiation (that is conditions firing) its battle(dashing) part. For a defeat lowalt missiles the level of datas of requests to ZUR is considerably reduced. However for want of it it is necessary to exclude a possibility of a malfunctioning radiodetonator of battle(dashing) equipment ZUR owing to influence to it work of reflections of radio signals from a terrestrial surface. Now necessity of maintenance of an effective defense from impacts both ballistic, and winged rockets is vital need for those states, which in conditions of existing unstable military-political circumstances safeguard of the boundaries. Quite natural the desire is to decide this challenge by use of universal zenith rocket complexes and systems which are capable to struggle with both classes of rockets. The analysis of possibilities of existing domestic and foreign zenith rocket arms shows, that a similar universality in a various degree have only russian zenith rocket system (ZRS) S-300 and American zenith rocket complex "Patriot" (updating RAS-2 and RAS-3). In greatest the degrees of a possibility of effective struggle with ballistic and winged rockets are integrated in one from last modifications S-300 - system S-300PMU1, have a lot of conclusive advantages before the analogs. The complexes "Patriot" first of all as a means of a antimissile defense, for an erasure of iraq tactical ballistic missiles "Scud" in flight were used. In practice, truth, the efficiency of the advertised complexes has appeared twice below than outcomes of range tests: the probability of a defeat of the purpose has made from 0,4 (on evaluations Soviet intelligence) up to 0,6 (on datas of a Pentagon), against range parameters 0,8 - 0,95. Furthermore(in addition to) frequently "Patriot" finished "Scud" actually on ground, at the purpose, only increasing damage to object of an attack. It, certainly, has required serious completion of a complex, especially of its software. But also after that on majority of parameters the russian zenith rocket system exceeds the main American competitor. S-300PMU1 is capable practically with 100% probability to intercept and to destroy the advanced battle(dashing) planes(airplanes), strategic winged rockets, tactical and operatively tactical ballistic missiles and other means of an air attack in all a range of their battle(dashing) application, including for want of effect of heavily active and passive parasites, and also in conditions of mountain-woody district. The high battle(dashing) performances of this system were confirmed by large volume of experimental work&. And, as by actual start-up till a various type to targets in complicated antinoise circumstances (only on a final stage of tests them was conducted about 40), and by mathematical modelling(simulation). Structure of S-300PMU1 includes a zenith rocket complex (radar and induction, up to 8 launchers with four zenith controlled rockets on each), and also means of technical operation and storage of rockets. All elements of a complex are mounted on the automobile chassis of increased permeability, that ensures to it(him) high mobility. The time of development of S-300PMU1 of the not prepared beforehand item makes only 5 min. For want of to work in woody or hardly of crossed district the antenna post of the radar lianaana and induction can be lifted with the help of special crane on height of 19 m. This mobile multichannel zenith rocket system developed in NPO"DIAMOND", is intended first of all for a defense of major objects of country and creation of boundaries of a AD defense for a reflection of mass impacts both modern, and perspective means of an air attack in all a range of their battle(dashing) application for want of availability of heavily active and passive parasites. The permanent assets of this system are used also for AD of the ships(spacecrafts) of naval fleet. The possibilities S-300PMU1 were shown during exponential fire in a course(!during) of the international exhibition of arms "IDEX-93" (Abu-Dhabi). Today system S-300PMU1 is capable to strike planes(airplanes) and helicopters, winged rockets, rocket of a class "air - ground" and BRMD practically of all types. For want of it she(it) favourably differs from other complex by the profitability, mobility and reliability in operation. The so universal character of a system is ensured with its optimum structure and high tactical-characteristics of means, included in it(her). So the zenith controlled rocket 48H6E, created in MKB"Plume", is capable with high efficiency to strike the aerodynamic purposes of all types on distances up to 150 kms. At the same time she(it) is and antimissile, capable to strike BRMD (in this case distance of a defeat reaches(achieves) 40 kms). Zenith controlled rocket - single-stage with hardfuel drive. It a lift-off weight about 1800 kgs. Length - about 7,5 g, diameter - about 0,5 m. The rockets in the transport-starting container in the completely equipped kind are placed and do not require(demand) any checks and adjustments during not less 10 (!) Years of operation. This rocket by Machine-building design office "Plume" is developed. The start of a rocket is carried out with the help of catapults in a vertical position, that allows without turns of launchers conduct gunning the purposes ean?lco from any direction. With the help of of gas control surfaces the rocket heavily is declined in the necessary party, then during 12 with is boosted up to a velocity of 1900 m\s and directs to the purpose on an energetically optimal path. For want of it to it(her) the transversal transhipments up to 20 aa are not terrible. Efficiency of a defeat of planes(airplanes) of tactical and strategic aircraft 0,8-0,93, and kceziean?lco of winged rockets of a type ALNG - 0,8-0,98. The battle(dashing) account of a complex consists of 6 persons - commander, operator of start-up, operator of detection, operator of grab and two operators of support. Last enter work only in case of decisionmaking on manual support of the purposes. Development and the curtailing S-300PMU1 with 8 launchers ensures account in an amount 28 persons. The high efficiency of shooting is ensured at the expense of application in a system of information means of several types: - highpotentional radar of detection of the purposes at average and large heights (PLO) 64K6A, simultaneously ensuring detection of several tens aerodynamic purposes round and ballistic purposes in a specific sector; - specialized radar of detection lowflight targets (NVO) 76K6, have a high degree of security from reflections of a terrestrial surface; - high-automated multifunctional radar and induction of rockets (SLK) 3IK6A1, capable simultaneously with induction to realize search of the purposes the structure of control facilities (NO) 83G6A is independent or under the instruction(indication) from item of battle(dashing) management (LIO) 54Z6A, included in. The radar lianaana ensures simultaneous induction up to 12 rockets on six purposes of a various type. The construction SLK and KAI allows to lift their antenna posts with the help of special cranes on height up to 20 g, that enables to create a continuous information field at extreme small heights in conditions of woody and hilly district and without restrictions conduct shooting on winged rockets and other lowflight targets. The item of battle(dashing) management makes the tax and generalization of the information acting(arriving) ini of all transferred(listed) types of information means of a system in interests of the most full realization of possibilities of firing means ESN. It(he) realizes interaction of a system with other means LAI, and also ensures stability of battle(dashing) work of a zenith rocket system in conditions of a radio electronic and firing counteraction. For problem solving of management the information from other sources can in addition be used which are possessed by(with) all system LAI. However own information means a system completely ensure an absolute autonomy of application of a system for creation of a mobile defense. By virtue of the high battle(dashing) properties S-300PMU1 can become a basis for construction of a reliable AD system of any state, irrespective of its scale and geoclimatic features. The ramified system of communication(connection) several ESN allows to create a high-power grouping unstrategic ABOUT, capable to supply(ensure) a reliable defense of objects on territory with square in tens thousands of square kilometers with management from uniform centre. The important dignity complex is high lifeassorbtion it of means to a long determination on battle(dashing) maintenance standby, that especially it is important in period preceding to the beginning of a military conflict. The technical feasibilities of means complex ensure their continuous work in a maximum degree of readiness to a reflection of impacts NRS within two day and more with a consequent short interraption. Lsickiecsoague the life cycle of means S-300PMU1 makes not less than 25-30 years and can be considerably prolonged after a partial replacement of the separate elements have limited resource(safe life). The zenith rocket system S-300PMU1 is in constant development, as possesses significant upgrade potential, including in a part of the essential extension of zones of a defeat of unstrategic rocket means and efficiency of their defeat.

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