Home Aircraft APC Artillery Firearms Helicopters Missiles Navy Tanks Contact Us

Modern Air Defense Radars

All-weather surveillance radars capable of operating round the clock have always been the only primary source of air situation data for the air defense forces and air traffic control systems, and it is anticipated that they will retain the role in the foreseeable future.
The Kasta-2E2 radar

The Radio Engineering Research Institute, a federal research center, is the first national developer of surveillance, guidance and target tracking radars.

Radar systems that have been developed at the Center of late meet the most stringent requirements, and the advanced technical and technological solutions they incorporate make them very promising for many years ahead.

The main products developed at the Center are primarily the Kasta-2E2, Gamma-DE and Gamma-S1E radar systems.

The Kasta-2E2 radar is a mobile automated solid-state system which can detect targets, measure their distance, azimuth and height, as well as track the targets and furnish their motion parameters to operators. The radar can handle such targets as fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, remote-piloted aerial vehicles, cruise missiles, including those flying at extreme-low altitudes, on the background of intense ground and cloud clutter. The radar can detect 'stealth' and moving sea-surface targets.

The radar can be incorporated in various rapid deployment systems, both military and nonmilitary, in service with the air and coastal defense forces, frontier guards, and for air traffic control.

The Gamma-DE radar

The radar comprises the following three stations, each being carried by its own KamAZ-4310 cross-country truck: an equipment station, an antenna station and an electric power generating set.

Provision is made in the radar system for a remote operator's workstation which can be set up at a distance of up to 300 m from the radar. The antenna can be erected on a lightweight transportable mast, 50 m in height, thus making it possible to detect low-flying targets at a longer range.

Kasta-2E2 is an advanced automated radar, featuring high reliability, ease of operation and maintenance, and having no world analogs in aggregate performance.

Gamma-DE is a mobile 3-D solid state phased-array radar designed for use as part of automated and nonautomated air defense and air force control systems. The radar can also be used for air traffic control.

Operating in the decimetric-wave band, the Gamma-DE radar can detect a broad range of modern air threats, including high-flying low-signature air-launched missiles, in heavy ECM and natural noise environments.

The radar comprises:

The Gamma-S1E radar

- phased array mounted on a turntable;

- data processing, presentation and transmission equipment;

- control equipment;

- interrogator;

- electric power generating set;

- spare parts, tools, accessories and test equipment.

In operation against air threats, the Gamma-DE radar is noted for increased target detection potentialities (in elevation and height), allowing it to detect and track targets on ballistic and aeroballistic trajectories. The radar features high immunity to noise, high automation level, as well as low operating costs.

Gamma-S1E is a mobile 3-D phased array radar designed for use in automated air defense and air force control systems, in various nonautomated systems, as well as by the rapid deployment forces. This radar can be used to furnish information to automated control points and to civil aviation traffic controllers.

The Gamma-S1E target acquisition, designation and guidance radar is capable of detecting and tracking a broad range of current and future air threats, including air-launched missiles, in ECM and natural noise environments.

The radar system incorporates:

- the M1 truck carrying the antenna turntable, transmit-receive equipment, and a built-in radio interrogator;

- the M2 truck carrying the control equipment and the data processing, presentation and transmission equipment;

- the M3 truck carrying spare parts, tools, accessories, test equipment and cables;

- electric power supply system mounted on trailers towed by the M1 and M2 trucks.

The radar can be outfitted with remote control equipment consisting of four operator workstations. The remote equipment can be set up at a distance of up to 1 km from the radar if signals are transmitted over a fiberoptic line, and at a distance of up to 15 km if a radio link is used for the purpose.

Gamma-S1E is a highly potential radar system featuring excellent noise immunity and high level of automation of the target acquisition, dynamic parameter measurement, operation control and monitoring processes.

Presently, radars have become extremely vulnerable to precision-guided munitions (PGM), which are currently on the upswing of their development, and which can use various physical principles to determine radar contrast.

Consequently, the air defense forces faced the problem of maintaining a continuous and effective electromagnetic field under intensive application of PGMs against emitting radars.

The Radio Engineering Research Institute in cooperation with several other companies have developed an effective system, dubbed Gazetchik-E, to counter antiradar missiles.

In operation, the system cuts off radar emission for a short time in response to commands coming from an independent antiradar missile detection system. Moreover, it activates deception and jamming devices to thwart the systems that direct the antiradar missiles outfitted with infrared, TV and active radar homing devices.

The defended sector is as follows:

in azimuth, deg 360

in elevation, deg up to 90.

The Gazetchik system's main components are:

- an independent antiradar missile detection system;

- antiradar missile deception elements operating in the defended radar's frequency range;

- aerosol and chaff dispensers;

- an interface unit connecting the defended radars with the Gazetchik system.

The Gazetchik system is available in different versions. The system operates automatically and draws power from the protected radar.

The Radio Engineering Research Institute can be your reliable partner in the development or delivery of modern air defense or air traffic control radars.

Basic Characteristics

    Kasta-2E2 Gamma-DE Gamma-S1E
Waveband decimetric decimetric centimetric
Operating limits:      
in range, km 5 - 150 10 - 360 (isoheight), 10 - 330 (isorange) 10 - 300, 10 - 400 (Aux. mode)
in azimuth, deg 360 360 360
in elevation, deg 25 (-2) - (+30) (isoheight) (-2) - (+30),
            (-2) - (+45) (isorange) (-2) - (+45)
            (aux. mode)
in height, km up to 6 30 (isoheight),
        60 (isorange)
Scan rate, s 5 and 10 10 10
Target detection range, km 41 - 55 (H=100 m), 330 - 360 (d=1 m2), 10 - 300,
      95 (H=1,000 m) 220 - 250 (d=0.13 m2) 10 - 400 (aux. mode)
Clutter suppression ratio, dB 54 45 45
Tracked targets 50 100 - 200 100
Mean time, h:      
between failures 700 300 500
Time, min:
turn on
3.3 1.5 5
set-up/close-down 20 1.5 4.0
Crew 2 - 3
Trucks 3 2 2

Main | Aircraft | APC | Artillery | Firearms | Helicopters | Missiles | Navy | Tanks | Contact Us
Copyright © 2000-2012 EnemyForces.net