NATO Designation SS-22 "Scaleboard"
|Entered service in||1965|
|Weight||9 300 kg|
|Type of warhead||nuclear, chemical, conventional|
|Carried by||MAZ-543A 8x8 vehicle|
|Characteristics of the launching vehicle|
|Overall length||12.38 m|
The development of the solid fuel medium-range ballistic missile began in the Soviet Union in 1959. This complex received indexation as 9K71 "Temp" (tempo). All ground launching equipment for the "Temp" was produced by Nr. 221 "Barikadi" plant, and chassis was built in Minsk vehicle plant. Ballistic missile had a preparation for launch time in 20 - 30 minutes. Missile carried nuclear (300 ktons), chemical, high-explosion warheads. It's test launches began in 1961. There were made 6 test launches. Analyzing their results came, that missile has a maximum range of fire in 425 kilometers instead of planned 500 - 600. Furthermore missile had underflight in 40 kilometers becouse of some technical reasons. In 1962 it was improved to reach a range of fire in at least 460 kilometers. The second test stage began in December 1962. However in 1963 there was signed order to stop all tests and cancel the project due to the lag in tests plans and low tactical-technical characteristics. "Temp's" design wasn't optimal as it has a launch weight in 10.5 tones, what was quiet a lot for a such class missile. However development of the "Temp" led to projecting and developing some new technologies, used with later built missiles.
Development of a new "Temp-S" medium-range ballistic missile began in 1962. NATO designated it as SS-22 "Scaleboard" however later it's improved version was redesignated as SS-12M "Scaleboard-B" (a non-standard designation), and the "Temp-S" - as the SS-12 respectively. Temp's initial project was accepted in December 1962. Missile was fitted with nuclear, chemical and other warheads, developed for the "Temp" canceled missile project. The "Temp-S" featured hidrostabilized inertial guidance system (it's predecessor "Temp" missile lacked such system). The 9P120 launching vehicle was developed by "Barikadi" plant, mounted on the MAZ-543A high-mobility 8 x 8 wheeled chassis manufactured at Minsk vehicle plant. This vehicle was completed with the D12A-525A diesel engine, and carried 520 liters of fuel. It featured very high mobility performances of it's four axles and a gap between the second and third axle. This feature allowed vehicle to cross wide trenches and other obstacles. Missile was carried in a closed container.
The first launch of the OTR-22 "Temp-S" was made on the 14th March 1964. Missile flew a range in 580 kilometers. The 5-th test launch was made on 18th July 1964. The missile flew a range in 850 kilometers with a deflection from target in 3.44 kilometers left and overflew it in 3.55 kilometers. Such details seemed to be acceptable for the Soviet Union and in 1965 the "Temp-S" complex entered service with the Soviet army. It is worth adding that two of the five test launches were emergency. And the reasons of it's adoption was that the Soviet Union needed missile to reach NATO bases in Europe developed in a very short terms.
Further development of the "Temp-S" became the "Temp-2S" mobile missile complex, mounted on the chassis of the MAZ3547A wheeled vehicle. It is also known as the SS-16 "Sinner".
In November 1987 presidents of the Soviet Union and the United States of America signed an agreement due to limitation of short- and medium-range ballistic missiles elimination (INF Treaty). This treaty involved missiles with a range of fire in 500 - 5 500 kilometers. Executing it's part of the agreement in 1990 the Soviet Union destroyed all OTR-22 "Temp-S" medium range ballistic missiles and launching vehicles.